Transport security includes control measures and procedures for the protection of high-risk pathogens during transport. During transport of high-risk material, neither the shipper nor the receiver has physical control of the material. The questions in this part of biosecurity vulnerability scan are intended to identify the vulnerabilities surrounding the entire process of packaging, sending and receiving high-risk material. High-risk material is defined here as: biosafety level (BSL) 3 and 4 pathogens (animal and human), and quarantine organisms (plant pathogens). In addition, in the questions below, definitions used in the relevant laws and regulations are used as well.
In the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR), infectious material is classified as hazard classes 6.1, 6.2 and 9 (ADR, question 1 and 2), while the European dual-use regulation (no. 428/2009) concerns dual-use goods.
For physical transport of high-risk material (such as infectious microorganisms, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), diagnostic samples and hospital waste, including toxins) by road, water, rail and air, are in force. Moreover, additional European legislation applies to the export of certain pathogens or knowledge and technologies concerning these pathogens if the pathogens are on the export control list of the dual-use regulation. National and international laws and regulations for transport and export control regarding high-risk biological material are included in the explanations of the questions. Some questions apply to the situation in the Netherlands.
In this biosecurity pillar of good practice, you will gain insight into the following:
- Management and control of high-risk material during transport.
- Management and control of transport procedures.
- Laws and regulations (the Netherlands and international).
- European export controls on strategic goods.